ab ovo usque ad mala

Eternal Systems (EtSy) - Ultra Large-Scaled(ULS-) Systems:

Eternal Systems run for ever - e.g. for repair, they cannot simply be switched on or off - and they surround us and our life every day.

The Notion of EtSy(1) - also called Ultra-Large-Scaled Systems - in 2006 became invented by the DoD-study on ULS-Systems undertaken by the "Software Engineering Institute (SEI)" of the Carnegie Mellon University" [Pittsburgh PA 15213-3890].

SEI defines an ULS-System as a "system of systems", i.e. a "Socio-Technical Ecosystem (STE-System)" that requires "breakthrough research ... in design and evolution, orchestration and control, monitoring and assessment".

With the advent of the Cyber-Hyper Ventilation, EtSys recently called Cyber Physical Systems, since they combine Physical World Parts, e.g. Energy, Rail, with Cyber World Parts, e.g. Data Sensor Networks I4.0/AI Controls etc., into an Integrated Hybrid System.

A better notion is the concept of 'Critical Infrastructures', that has been invented by [BMBF - German Ministry for Education and Research] and is called 'CRITIS', which comprises actually 8 combinations of physical systems with I&C Technologies, such as:
  1. Nutrition Services Infrastructure;
  2. electrical Energy Distribution Infrastructure, e.g. Smart Grid, Smart Metering Systems;
  3. Information & Telecommunication Infrastructure, e.g. 3GPP, WiFi, ...
  4. Health Care Services Infrastructure;
  5. Transportation and Traffic Control Infrastructure;
  6. Media, Social Communication & Culture Infrastructure;
  7. Freshwater Services Infrastructure;
  8. Finance & Insurance Services Infrastructure; 
(see also: WP 'Specification of CRITIS') 

A more specific type of CRITIS is the 'Industrial Automated Control System (IACS)'. The aspects of Security and Privacy Requirements is described in the forthcoming standard IEC 62443-2-4; (see WP IACS WS Abstract)! 

[1] The (Eternal) System ist - according to the Common Criteria – the Target of Evaluation (ToE), but is outside the control components of the Security Perimeter – since the System has open interfaces to everybody!